Posts Tagged ‘research paper’

18
Sep

How to Close a Research Paper

The close, or conclusion, is one of the most important parts of a research paper. It brings together all key pieces of information presented earlier in the paper and gives the reader a final perspective. The conclusion provides an ending to the paper, leaving the reader satisfied that he was given all necessary information on the topic.

Examine the key points you made throughout your research paper. The number of key points depends on how extensive the topic is and the paper’s length. An extensive topic probably has many key points.

Write each key point while constructing the first draft of your conclusion. This will give you a list of each point that you made.

Summarize all of the key points from your list into one or two paragraphs in the conclusion. Tie them together so that they give the reader a sense that the paper is complete and that she has all information necessary on the topic.

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30
Jul

Term Paper Instructions

A term paper is a paper that you write at the end of a term, which summarizes a specific idea or research project you’ve been working on. Although term papers are specific papers, you will have different guidelines, such as the page length, the subject matter, and the writing format, depending on your school and the class, as well as your grade level.

Read and make sure you understand the parameters of the term paper. A term paper, like a research paper or a thesis, is a paper for which a teacher or school can create any guidelines for that they wish. You should figure out how long it should be, what your topic should be, and what format you should write in, from what your teacher or syllabus says.

Decide on a topic for your term paper, if one was not assigned to you. The topic should be something that you are interested in, as well as something you know has a lot of information available. Try to choose something that will be easy to research with the resources that you have, as well.

Come up with an angle for your term paper. Writing about the Civil War is an idea, but you’ll need an angle, such as the particular battles of the war, or the outcome of the war, or the impact the war has today.

Research your paper based on the criteria that you were given — if you need five sources, find five and use them. Find good sources of research according to what your school or teacher considers to be appropriate, and according to the assignment — if you need a specific number of Internet or book sources, be sure to find and include them.

Come up with a thesis statement, or main idea, for your paper. This should be the overall main idea that you want to get across in your writing. After you’ve found that, you can come up with several proofs or points to support that main idea. Research your proofs or points and take notes on what you find.

Write a rough draft of your paper. Be sure that you include your thesis statement and points, and that you give information and details for your points. Then you can edit your rough draft and move on to a final draft.

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28
Jun

Writing styles

  • MLA

A term describing guidelines used for writing and preparation of research papers or manuscripts and which stands for Modern Language Association of America. MLA has two principle styles, that is, the MLA handbook for writers of research papers and the MLA style manual and guide to scholarly articles. The key difference between MLA and other styles of writing is that it recommends works or sources citation be referenced within the paper as opposed to footnotes or chapters. It is divided into three sections, the overall paper format, in-text citations of sources and works cited list. This style involves mainly humanities, literature and arts. Titles of books are italicized than being underlined.  All pages are numbered consecutively in the upper right-hand corner.

  • APA

This stands for American Psychological Association. It is commonly used in citing social sciences and psychology. The general APA guidelines entails the research be typed in double space, font size between 10-12 in Times New Roman. The major sections include the title page, abstract, main body and the reference. The style specifies the order of headings, references, arrangement of tables, appendices, footnotes and formatting. It also combines the author-date style of parenthetical referencing.

  • CHICAGO

It has two styles, the author-date system and the documentary-note style. They are used in physical or natural sciences and in literature and history consecutively. The general guidelines include use of punctuation, flush-and- style indentation, italics and abbreviations among others. Numbering is used in the documentary-note style either in the text, a footnote or endnote. It includes chapters pertinent to publishers of books and journals. The Chicago writing style is flexible because it offers the writers a choice in several various formats.

  • TURABIAN

This is a writing style associated with a writer named Kate Turabian. It is derived from the Chicago manual style which is very exhaustive and is designed to be used by college students in all the subjects or areas of academics. The Turabian places bibliographic citations at the end of a paper or at the bottom of the page. The manual spells rules and conventions for chapters, headings, abbreviations and designation of tables. It offers advice in various citation style systems. Its key contrast with other styles like APA is that it is specific for the purpose of being used for papers written in class rather than for publication.

  • VANCOUVER

The style is normally used in medical or scientific journals in setting reference lists and bibliographies. The reference list appears at the end of the report or research with sufficient information clearly detailed. Citations in Vancouver are identified with Arabic numerical in round brackets within the essay paper. A number is used even when the author is named in the next sentence. Hyphens are used join the last and numbers which are inclusive. Reference numbers are placed outside commas and full stops or inside colons.

  • HARVARD

When incorporating ideas or numerical from different sources it is documented in two ways, mainly providing an in-text citation and entering the source in the list of references. This is also done when summarizing information on a specific page from the source. The style involves referencing in-text citation with use of paretheses. Page numbers should be present as a rule. It is based on author-date system for articles and also for non-books. The structure of citations under Harvard system is the author’s name, the page number and year of publication. Citations are in the same font as in the main page.

  • OXFORD

The style guide is categorized into three major pars which include the spelling, punctuation and the typographic formats. All these cover spelling rules, hyphenation and use of capitalization respectively. It uses British English than using American English. Multiple issues are considered examples including the en rule, ellipses, and acronyms among others. It deals with phonetics, special subjects and in citation of digital media. It generally uses a combination of in-line notations leading to its description as a documentary-note referencing style. Markers are used each time information is quoted from a source which are sequentially numbered in order in which they appear. Both summarizing and paraphrasing is allowed under oxford referencing.

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