Posts Tagged ‘conventions’


Writing styles

  • MLA

A term describing guidelines used for writing and preparation of research papers or manuscripts and which stands for Modern Language Association of America. MLA has two principle styles, that is, the MLA handbook for writers of research papers and the MLA style manual and guide to scholarly articles. The key difference between MLA and other styles of writing is that it recommends works or sources citation be referenced within the paper as opposed to footnotes or chapters. It is divided into three sections, the overall paper format, in-text citations of sources and works cited list. This style involves mainly humanities, literature and arts. Titles of books are italicized than being underlined.  All pages are numbered consecutively in the upper right-hand corner.

  • APA

This stands for American Psychological Association. It is commonly used in citing social sciences and psychology. The general APA guidelines entails the research be typed in double space, font size between 10-12 in Times New Roman. The major sections include the title page, abstract, main body and the reference. The style specifies the order of headings, references, arrangement of tables, appendices, footnotes and formatting. It also combines the author-date style of parenthetical referencing.


It has two styles, the author-date system and the documentary-note style. They are used in physical or natural sciences and in literature and history consecutively. The general guidelines include use of punctuation, flush-and- style indentation, italics and abbreviations among others. Numbering is used in the documentary-note style either in the text, a footnote or endnote. It includes chapters pertinent to publishers of books and journals. The Chicago writing style is flexible because it offers the writers a choice in several various formats.


This is a writing style associated with a writer named Kate Turabian. It is derived from the Chicago manual style which is very exhaustive and is designed to be used by college students in all the subjects or areas of academics. The Turabian places bibliographic citations at the end of a paper or at the bottom of the page. The manual spells rules and conventions for chapters, headings, abbreviations and designation of tables. It offers advice in various citation style systems. Its key contrast with other styles like APA is that it is specific for the purpose of being used for papers written in class rather than for publication.


The style is normally used in medical or scientific journals in setting reference lists and bibliographies. The reference list appears at the end of the report or research with sufficient information clearly detailed. Citations in Vancouver are identified with Arabic numerical in round brackets within the essay paper. A number is used even when the author is named in the next sentence. Hyphens are used join the last and numbers which are inclusive. Reference numbers are placed outside commas and full stops or inside colons.


When incorporating ideas or numerical from different sources it is documented in two ways, mainly providing an in-text citation and entering the source in the list of references. This is also done when summarizing information on a specific page from the source. The style involves referencing in-text citation with use of paretheses. Page numbers should be present as a rule. It is based on author-date system for articles and also for non-books. The structure of citations under Harvard system is the author’s name, the page number and year of publication. Citations are in the same font as in the main page.


The style guide is categorized into three major pars which include the spelling, punctuation and the typographic formats. All these cover spelling rules, hyphenation and use of capitalization respectively. It uses British English than using American English. Multiple issues are considered examples including the en rule, ellipses, and acronyms among others. It deals with phonetics, special subjects and in citation of digital media. It generally uses a combination of in-line notations leading to its description as a documentary-note referencing style. Markers are used each time information is quoted from a source which are sequentially numbered in order in which they appear. Both summarizing and paraphrasing is allowed under oxford referencing.

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How to Write the Narrative Essay

Here you will find out how to write a narrative essay with the help of our general recommendations and some useful tips. If you want to write a narrative essay, initially you need to choose the topic in which you will be strong.  It means, when you write an essay of such type you are telling your individual story. The main aim in narrative essay is to catch the attention of the reader and to appeal on her or his senses. Generally speaking, the more descriptive and interesting facts you use the more curious it will be for the audience.

Narrative Essay Guide


General information and rules of a good narrative essay.

  • How to write a narrative essay? Usually narrative essay is based on the author’s experience. That means that you can write about your own stories that were either in present or in past. Furthermore, the author can write about stories that were based on experience of other people.
  • If you want to write a narrative essay you need to use the conventions of storytelling. That means that you are supposed not to forget about plot, climax, character, setting and of course, ending. Try to fill your story with some interesting facts and details that will embellish your narrative essay.
  • Firstly, you need to choose interesting topic of your essay which will catch not only your attention but your audience. Besides, it should include many thrilling and curious facts.
  • Moreover, you are recommended to write beginning, body and the end. If you will have the outline of the story it will make the essay more organized.
  • Besides, you need to think about the images which you will use in your essay in order to impress the audience.
  • Write a clear purpose of the story.  Explain for the reader why you are telling this story.
  • In the introduction of your narrative essay you are highly recommended to tell the reader what story will follow. Don’t forget about the purpose. It is not a secret that your introduction should attract the attention of the reader. So, try to make it more interesting and thrilling.
  • In the body you need to tell the complete story of your essay. It means that you should clearly narrate your purpose.
  • Don’t forget to organize your story. You should chronologically explain the reader about all details.  You may confuse your readers if choose a different organization method.
  • Besides try to use descriptive language. If you want to give a description of some event try to make it brighter that means to set the scene.  Furthermore, you supposed to describe people, events and other things that will hook the reader.
  • Don’t forget about sounds, smells and appearances. Give a description of them using some descriptive language. Give the audience the sense of reality.
  • Try not to describe events which are not relevant to your story. In order not to confuse the reader’s attention.
  • Finally, write the conclusion of your narrative essay that sum ups your story and leaves your reader with a parting word.



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