30
Dec

Writing comparison

Writing comparison and contrast essays presumes the conduction of comparison between two subjects. A comparative part should display the similarities between the discussed subjects, whereas a contrast part shows the differences. While choosing a topic for comparison/contrast essay, it is necessary to make sure that the chosen subjects are not totally unrelated.
Airplane AutomobileFast SlowExpensive CheapHi-tech SimpleBounded MobileAny distance Limited distanceLong voyages

Everyday trips

The complete list of differences and similarities will enable an author to formulate the thesis statement that takes into account the identified purpose of the comparison/contrast essay. In case of Airplane/Automobile comparison, the thesis statement might look like this: “Although transportation by airplane is much more expensive than that by automobile, airplane’s ability to cover long distances quickly is a considerable advantage”.

Introductory paragraph of a comparison/contrast essay should include the brief description of both subjects finalized by the formulation of a thesis statement. Further organization of an essay is possible in two ways. On the one hand, it is possible to divide the compared subjects and discuss the descriptive details in separated paragraphs. On the other hand, a writer can choose to alternate the discussed subjects from paragraph to paragraph. However, it is necessary to keep in mind that an alternating structure may make an essay look somewhat confused, especially if the compared subjects are poorly related.

Sometimes is a comparison and contrast essay it is possible to provide the reader with a list of the benefits and drawbacks of the things or phenomena that are being compared. When doing so, the writer should not only explain what are the two things or objects and how they are different, but also consider their positive and negative features and state in conclusion which is better (to his opiion) and why.

Body paragraphs should be ended by a conclusion that outlines the identified correlations between two objects and restates the previously formulated thesis statement.

19
Dec

Making Better Word Choices – 4 Examples

Choosing the wrong words can have a poor effect on your writing and on you. Whether you are writing a cover letter for a job, a business proposal, or an application essay for graduate school using words poorly can result in negative feedback. One could find entire books regarding word choices for writers, this article will touch on some fundamental, but important ways to choose the correct word for your situation.
Our starting point will be the use of “There are” or “There is” to begin sentences. Consider this; the word “there” indicates “not here” (in other words, some other place). Now look at the sentence below and think about what the meaning is and what might be intended.

There are four dogs playing with a ball.

If the writer meant that four dogs are over there and they are playing with a ball, then this would be technically correct. If the intention was merely that four dogs are playing with a ball, here, there, or anywhere, then the sentence could be worded better. The following sentence would show better wording on the writer’s part.

Four dogs are playing with a ball.

The next two words that writers often confuse are “which” and “that.” If the goal of your writing is to describe something and you have used commas to separate the phrase from the rest of the sentence you want to use “which.” When a writer wants a word to define and the reference is restricted then you want to use “that.” The first sentence below shows the correct use of “that” and the second sentence shows correct use of “which.”

The Yodo is the river that runs through Osaka.
The Yodo, which is a major waterway, runs though Osaka.

Our next word choice is between “while” and “although.” Another way of thinking about the word “although” is to look at its meaning, as found on Merriam-Webster Online dictionary the meaning is, “in spite of the fact that : even though.”1 The definition of “while” indicates a relation to time, such as during a period when something else is happening. Two correctly worded sentences are below.

Although he is not tall, he is a good basketball player.
While he listened to the radio, he finished his homework.

A writer’s choice between “since” and “because” also involves the possibility of a reference to time. Many people use “since” when they really mean “because,” this is rarely a correct use of the word “since.” When choosing a word to suggest “from a definite past time until now”1 use “since.” If you are not referring to time, “because” should be the word you choose. Try using “because,” if your sentence doesn’t make sense then you probably want to use “since.” In the examples below the two incorrect sentences do not sound correct, while the correct sentences actually sound better.

Incorrect:He had few friends since he was too annoying.
Correct:He had few friends because he was too annoying.
Incorrect:He has not ridden a bicycle because 1990.
Correct:He has not ridden a bicycle since 1990.


Whether you are writing an essay for school or you are writing a speech for your CEO, choose your words carefully because what people hear or read from you can make a big difference in their opinion about you and your intelligence. For anyone writing, regardless of topic, length, or purpose, ask for assistance if you need it, not doing so can have serious repercussions on your reputation.

1 Merriam-Webster Online. 20 January 2005. http://m-w.com/

17
Dec

What are the Most Common Referencing Styles

When writing an essay or dissertation, referencing is essential but can cause a lot of stress. Here are the most common forms of referencing.
Using the words or ideas of others is crucial to academic writing. It demonstrates a real concern on your part with the quality of the evidence you have used throughout your essay and it helps substantiate your conclusion. Citing or referencing your sources properly also enables the reader to check that you have used your sources appropriately and that the arguments you are drawing from the works of others are sound, and that you are doing justice to the original author’s ideas and points of view. In addition, citing references helps anyone marking your work to see that you haven’t plagiarised or taken ideas or words from another author without making this clear.

When it comes to referencing sources, there are three things that you have to provide:

- Within the text you need to provide an extract from the source. This can either be a word for word quotation or a paraphrase of the information they have provided you with

- Within the text, usually after the extract from the source, you need to provide some form of a marker which indicates that this information comes from another person – they aren’t your words or ideas
- And finally, you need to provide details of the source. This usually appears as a footnote or as a list of references at the back of the essay

There are 4 common referencing styles:

- The author/date style; most commonly known in the UK and Australia as the Harvard style of referencing. With this style, the marker you would provide within the text is the author’s name and then the date of the publication, i.e. Smith (1980) or (Smith, 1980)
- The Superscript. With this style, the marker you would provide within the text is a raised number, e.g. You would then provide the details of the source in a footnote at the bottom of each page
- Bracketed numbers; also known as the numbered-note style. With this style, the marker you would provide within the text is a number in brackets, i.e. (12). The first citation you provide would be numbered as (1), the second as (2), and so on and so forth. The details of each source would then be listed in a list of references at the end of the essay
- Vancouver-numeric style. With this style, the marker you would provide within the text is the same as the bracketed number style, i.e. a number in brackets. However, unlike the bracketed number style, the same number may appear in the essay or dissertation more than once. As with the bracketed number style, you start with (1), then (2), and so on throughout the essay, BUT when you refer to a source that you have previously referred to, you insert its original number. So, if for example you refer to source number 5 seven times, the insert (5) would appear seven times in your essay or dissertation.

Throughout the UK the Harvard style of referencing is most commonly adopted by Universities; however some Universities will let you choose your own style of referencing. It is always best to speak to each of your lecturers or teachers and ask them for clear rules of the referencing style they would like you to adopt.

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